Water and Environment

It will not be untrue to say that all the industries in current times are coinciding with the environmental field. With the stringent environmental regulations, industries are being pushed to follow methodologies that are more environment friendly. IOT-based systems come into the picture for these analyses and monitoring. Zero waste discharge, recycling, and green approach are a few terminologies that shed light on the qualitative standard of any industry. In this context, mining and metallurgical processes discard the most harmful and toxic waste. Regardless of the toxicity, every industry discharges the wastewater following the regulations where it is being discarded. Water resource management, free-surface flows, and truly multiphase is Paanduv’s expertise.

Scour and sediment transport to model problems like flow through bridge pier, dredging, flows in river beds, and ocean are addressed and modeled with accuracy. 

Paanduv’s expertise in truly multiphase systems, free-surface flows, reactions, and chemical kinetics makes us the best candidate for 3D modeling of these processes. 

Keywords: Wastewater treatment, Pollution abatement, Water and air monitoring, Tailings, Dam break , Bio-chemical Reaction.

Introduction of industrial wastewater treatment 

Brief of unit operations in industrial wastewater treatment process 

Classification of contaminants and respective treatment processes

Computational aspect of wastewater treatment Scope of process efficiency improvement

Challenges in wastewater treatment plant management and monitoring 

Zero-liquid discharge concept and improved economics with computational modeling 

Value addition by computational modeling AI in industrial wastewater treatment

 How can Paanduv help?

Wastewater treatment in Contact Tank

As per the regulations, industries can not discard the effluent water directly to the water sources. Preliminary water treatment has to be attempted for the effluent to meet the standard to be discarded in water bodies. On a large scale, chlorination is one process that is used for decades and has not found an economic replacement yet. 

In the secondary treatment process, organic and inorganic impurities are dealt with. Chlorine consumption, bacterial disinfection, and ammonia removal result in the formation of disinfection by-products and sequential reactions. The occurrence of multiple reactions of different kinetics adds complexity to the system along with multiphase flows and multiphase reactions. 

We are efficient in modeling primary, secondary, and tertiary treatment of water using CFD.

Multiphase Dam Break Flooding Analysis

Routing is used to demonstrate how a reservoir or flood detention basin will affect the volume of water downstream resulting from a storm. 

It can effectively be used for decision-making to avoid life and property loss.

We have modeled the tallest concrete gravity dam in the world. We have demonstrated how a reservoir or flood detention basin will affect the volume of water downstream for Dibang dam, Arunachal Pradesh, India.

Multiphase Cascading Dropshaft

Dropshafts are used to reduce the kinetic energy of water to minimize the damage to the underneath structures. Limiting the drop height between the baffles, baffle-drop structures keep flow velocities relatively low, limiting erosion potential and air entrainment.

With our expertise in multiphase flows we work efficiently on water hydraulic systems, water resource and management systems, water treatment closed reactors, aeration systems.


Mine waste usually called tailings; consists of several components including fines, coarse particles, minerals, metals, chemicals, and water. Due to the presence of various hazardous contaminants in them, these are stored at isolated locations where the risk of large-scale damage is less, yet due to various reasons dams crumble and cause tremendous damage to infrastructure, the environment, and human life. Dewatering the tailings streams to produce a homogenous non segregating thickened form is a solution proposed by researchers to reduce the damage. This may change their rheological properties and flow behavior, thus reducing the destructive nature of these flows. 

We extracted the real site terrain and started with the computational modeling of the Red Chris mine tailings dam failure. The goal was to predict the effects of the partial tailings dam wall breach on the downstream areas. 

We work at the forefront of catastrophic prevention in geological structures and propose design modifications and measures to control the possible damage. 

Sediment Scour Modeling

At Paanduv, our research team has customized an OpenFOAM-based sediment transport solver with validations and applications to real-world problems, including but not limited to coastal erosion, river bed erosion, dredging, and scouring around natural and artificial structures. 


Sloshing is a phenomenon that occurs when a tank filled with any fluid is kept under constant motion. This motion can be driven by the motion of a vehicle on the road or the motion of a ship against oceanic wave motion.  These problems are elaborate and are well captured once all the forces are accurately understood. CFD solvers are well suited for complicated problems. We provide accurate solutions to these problems. 

Water Monitoring System

The current trends of IOT-based systems based on water quality monitoring, groundwater metering, and water usage quantification require a certain flow regime to be detected perfectly by the sensor with accuracy. The accuracy of these sensors is dependent on how closely the water flow follows the regime to be sensed by the sensor. For such operations, pressure drop minimization is required. For which the pipe length, bends, and the flow modifiers are major parameters along with inlet velocity that can control the flow nearby the sensor.   

We work on such systems to propose and model design innovations to optimize the flow and parameters. These systems can be very well implemented in airflow and monitoring systems. 

Oil, Water, and Air Separation

The separation of three phases is a truly multiphase flow problem.  Distinct interphases are visualized using advanced VOF solvers. 

We have modeled the separation of three phases oil-water-air (truly multiphase)  from crude oil using mechanical separators. These are the preliminary separation methods that are used to separate the impurities from the crude oil to process it in the refinery.  

Floating Bodies

There are several floating architectures that are designed. There are several advantages of floating bodies over stationary ones in marine and coastal areas. Such as they do not damage the marine ecosystem and do not cause silt deposition in deep harbors. They do not disrupt the ocean currents. They are easy to construct since much of the construction is completed onshore. Their installation is rapid and they are immune to seismic shock.

We have demonstrated the 3D modeling showing the dropping of elevated water to create the wave which in turn moves the pontoon bridge.

Wave Motion

Wave motion is the propagation of energy without the displacement of matter from one point to another. It can also be due to vibrational motion. The wave motion can be longitudinal or transverse. 

The wave motion can be a clean energy source where this energy can be harvested and converted into a usable form.

We are able to model several wave motion patterns. These wave patterns vary depending on the source of the motion. We are successfully able to capture the physics and model such systems with accuracy.

Flow around Civil Structures

Scouring under civil structures, especially bridges may damage the structural integrity of the bridge. This is also seen under the abutment. Therefore, sediment scour modeling is important to understand the potential decrease in the sediment around the piers. We performed advanced 3D sediment scour analysis for soil slope stability during peak river flow. We also performed scour transport modeling near the bridge pier. 

We perform sentiment and scour modeling for such large constructed structures. These problems are applicable areas where architectures are surrounded by sand or granular materials.

Catastrophic prevention and damage control

We work at the forefront of catastrophic prevention in geological structures and propose design modifications and measures to control the possible damage.   

We are efficient in working with large-scale structures or real terrains to assess the real-time catastrophic damage from any calamity. 

It includes free water flows, non-Newtonian fluid flows, granular flows, sediment transport or oceanic wave motion, wind motion, high-speed circular wind motion, hailstorms, and more.