Thermal Management

Thermal management is crucial for the optimal efficiency of a process. It is a balance between minimum degradation of a device caused by the discrepancy of the temperature and its performance. It includes the choice of an appropriate cooling medium and heat transfer mechanism such that the temperature is maintained in the best operating range. Paanduv is a suitable choice providing expert solutions in conjugate heat transfer, buoyancy-driven flows, radiation and atomization, and combustion. 

Keywords: Conjugate heat transfer, HVAC, Buoyancy driven flows, Radiation, Fire, Combustion, Pyrolysis, Boiling, Condensation, Compressible and Incompressible flows 

Fuel Cell

Increase in temperature in fuel cells is caused due to constant electrochemical reactions near catalyst layers. The proton exchange membrane functions well when hydrated. High temperature reduces its efficiency due to lack of hydration at high temperatures. The current density also reduces at high temperatures. Overall efficiency of PEM fuel cells reduces at high temperatures. 

Thermal management in low temperature fuel cells are rather important to continue to operation at operating temperature ranges. 


Wind energy is a clean form of energy that is used to generate electricity by the kinetic energy created by the motion of air. The nacelle is the heart of a wind turbine that integrates several components to convert low-speed incoming rotation into high-speed rotations and electricity thereafter. 

Paanduv team has put together a case study of thermal management of a nacelle overcoming all the geometric complexities. The design optimizations were performed to obtain a reduction in the overall temperature of the nacelle and in individual components, including the gearbox, generator, and fluid coupling. 

Battery Thermal Management

Electric vehicles are gaining enormous attention due to zero emissions. But the non-uniformity in temperature across battery cells and exothermic reactions leads to the rise in temperature and therefore comprised the performance and lifetime of the battery pack. This can also pose threat to safety due to thermal runaway reactions. Like humans, the battery works well and longer when operated at room temperature. 

We have modeled an air-cooled battery pack system of 59 cells. Physics including conjugate heat transfer, compressible flows, pressure velocity coupling, and turbulent flows is well captured. We are capable of handling more complicated cooling mechanisms such as cold plate, liquid-cooled, phase change material cooling thermal management systems. Design and parameter optimization for the optimized arrangement of cells, size, and inlet temperature are analyzed in detail.

Boiling and Condensation

Separation processes, boilers, thermal power plants use boiling process for large scale operations. Distillation is a process where boiling is used to efficiently separate the two constituents based on their relative volatility. In thermal power plants, boiling is used to generate steam which is used to generate electricity. 

We have modeled nucleate boiling of water. The hot plate in the chamber is heated and the nucleation, bubble formation, bubble rise, bubble coalescence is analysed. 

Underwater Data Center

The underwater data center is a green approach to control the overall temperature rise caused by the land data center. Microsoft has tested its pods underwater and found them to be eight times more efficient than data centers on land. Others such as Google and Meta are following a similar approach. 

We have identified the structural placement of the HVAC system in these data centers and modeled them. The simulations are computationally expensive and offer a great deal of structural and meshing complexity. Systems like these include modeling of heat exchangers, buoyancy effects, compressible flows, conjugate heat transfer, and pressure velocity coupling of the fluid.